JAMB Syllabus For Chemistry 2023

Do you intend to sit for the JAMB examination this year? Do you need the most recent JAMB Chemistry syllabus for 2023/2024? If so, then you are on the right page because we have listed all the areas of concentration and the suggested textbooks for chemistry in JAMB UTME.

If you have registered for the 2023 Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME), also known as the JAMB, or if you intend to do so, then we are happy to inform you that in order to achieve a score of 300 and above, you must make adequate preparations.

But you must plan, and the most important part of planning is to have the right materials and books. As a result, JAMB has made its JAMB Syllabus for Chemistry available so that students can get ready and do well. The JAMB Syllabus is where JAMB lists all the subject areas and textbooks candidates are required to have.

This syllabus’s most amazing feature is that JAMB will explain to you what you should be able to do after reading each topic. This is to ensure that the questions that will come up don’t scare you.

Aims And Objectives

The Chemistry Unified Tertiary Matriculations Examination (UTME) syllabus’s main goal is to get students ready for the Board’s examination. Its purpose is to gauge student understanding of the course’s goals.

  1. comprehend the fundamental ideas and principles of chemistry
  2. the interpretation of chemistry-related scientific data
  3. Figure out how chemistry and other sciences are related.
  4. Use your understanding of chemistry in both your daily life and industry.
  • Ababio, O.Y. (2005). New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, (Third Edition),
  • Onitsha: Africana FIRST Publishers Limited
  • Bajah, S.T. Teibo, B.O., Onwu, G and Obikwere, A. (1999). Senior Secondary Chemistry,
  • Book 1, Lagos: Longman
  • Bajah, S.T., Teibo, B.O., Onwu, G and Obikwere, A. (2000). Senior Secondary Chemistry,
  • Books 2 and 3, Lagos: Longman
  • Ohia, G.N.C., Adewoyin, F.A. and Akpan, B.B. (1997). Exam Focus Chemistry for WASSCE
  • & JME: Ibadan: University Press Plc
  • STAN (1987). Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, Ibadan: Heinemann
  • Sylvester: O.O. (2004). A Comprehensive Practical Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools,
  • Ibadan: Evans
  • Uche, I.O., Adenuga, I.J. and Iwuagwu, S.L. (2003). Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE, NECO, JME Chemistry,
  • Ibadan: Evans
  • Wisdomline Pass at Once JAMB.

Jamb Syllabus for Chemistry 2023/2024

1. Separation of mixtures and purification of chemical substances

TOPICS:

  1. Pure and impure substances
  2. Boiling and melting points.
  3. Elements, compounds and mixtures
  4. Chemical and physical changes.
  5. Separation processes: evaporation, simple and fractional distillation, sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper and column chromatography, simple and fractional crystallization, magnetization, and decantation.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • distinguish between pure and impure substances;
  • use boiling and melting points as criteria for the purity of chemical substances;
  • distinguish between elements, compounds and mixtures;
  • differentiate between chemical and physical changes;
  • identify the properties of the components of a mixture;
  • specify the principle involved in each separation method.
  • apply the basic principle of separation processes in everyday life.

2. Chemical combination

TOPICS:

  1. Stoichiometry
  2. laws of definite and multiple proportions
  3. law of conservation of matter
  4. Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes
  5. Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae, equations and their uses, relative atomic mass based on 1212C=12, the mole concept and Avogadro’s number.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • perform simple calculations involving formulae, equations/chemical composition and the mole concept;
  • deduce the chemical laws from given expressions/statements/data;
  • interpret graphical representations related to these laws;
  • deduce the stoichiometry of chemical reactions.

3. Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws

TOPICS:

  1. An outline of the kinetic theory of matter;
    • melting,
    • vapourization
    • boiling
    • freezing
    • condensation in terms of molecular motion and Brownian movement.
  2. The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and Dalton (law of partial pressure); combined gas law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.
    • The ideal gas equation (PV = NRT).
    • The relationship between the vapour density of gases and the relative molecular mass.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • apply the theory to distinguish between solids, liquids and gases;
  • deduce reasons for the change of state;
  • draw inferences based on the molecular motion;
  • deduce gas laws from given expressions/ statements;
  • interpret graphical representations related to these laws;
  • perform simple calculations based on these laws, equations and relationships

4. Atomic structure and bonding

TOPICS:

  1. The concept of atoms, molecules and ions, the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford, Moseley, Thompson and Bohr.
    • Atomic structure, electron configuration, atomic number, mass number and isotopes; specific examples should be drawn from elements of atomic numbers 1 to 20.
    • Shapes of s and p orbitals.
  2. The periodic table and periodicity of elements, presentation of the periodic table with a view to recognizing families of elements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, noble gases and transition metals. The variation of the following properties: ionization energy, ionic radii, electron affinity and electronegativity.
  3. Chemical bonding. Electrovalency and covalency, the electron configuration of elements and their tendency to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen bonding and metallic bonding as special types of electrovalency and covalency respectively; coordinate bond is a type of covalent bond as illustrated by complexes like [Fe(CN)66]3−3−, [Fe(CN)66]4−4−, [Cu(NH33)44]2+2+ and [Ag(NH33)22]++; van der Waals’ forces should be mentioned as a special type of bonding forces.
  4. Shapes of simple molecules: linear ((H22, O22, Cl22,HCl and CO22), non-linear (H22O) and tetrahedral; (CH44) and pyramidal (NH33).
  5. Nuclear Chemistry:
    • Radioactivity – Types and properties of radiations
    • Nuclear reactions. Simple equations use and applications of natural and artificial radioactivity.

5. Air

TOPICS: 

  1. The natural gaseous constituents and their proportion in the air.- nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon (IV) oxide and the noble gases (argon and neon).
  2. Air as a mixture and some uses of the noble gas.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • deduce reason (s) for the existence of air as a mixture;
  • identify the principle involved in the separation of air components;
  • deduce reasons for the variation in the composition of air in the environment;
  • specify the uses of some of the constituents of air.

6. Water

TOPICS: 

  1. Water is a product of the combustion of hydrogen and its composition by volume.
  2. Water as a solvent, atmospheric gases dissolved in water and their biological significance.
  3. Hard and soft water: Temporary and permanent hardness and methods of softening hard water.
  4. Treatment of water for town supply.
  5. The water of crystallization, efflorescence, deliquescence and hygroscopy. Examples of the substances exhibiting these properties and their uses.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • identify the various uses of water;
  • identity the effects of dissolved atmospheric gases in water;
  • distinguish between the properties of hard and soft water;
  • determine the causes of hardness;
  • identify methods of removal of hardness;
  • describe the processes involved in the treatment of water for the town supply;
  • distinguish between these phenomena;
  • identify the various compounds that exhibit these phenomena.

7. Solubility

TOPICS:

  1. Unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated solutions. Solubility curves and simple deductions from them, (solubility defined in terms of a mole per dm33) and simple calculations.
  2. Solvents for fats, oil and paints and the use of such solvents for the removal of stains.
  3. False solution (Suspensions and colloids): Properties and examples. Harmattan haze and water paints as examples of suspensions and fog, and milk, aerosol spray, emulsion paints and rubber solution as examples of colloids.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • distinguish between the different types of solutions;
  • interpret solubility curves;
  • calculate the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature;
  • deduce that solubility is temperature-dependent;
  • relate the nature of solvents to their uses;
  • differentiate among true solution, suspension and colloids;
  • compare the properties of a true solution and a ‘false’ solution.
  • provide typical examples of suspensions and colloids.

8. Environmental Pollution

TOPICS: 

  1. Sources and effects of pollutants.
  2. Air pollution: Examples of air pollutants such as H22S, CO, SO22, oxides of nitrogen, chlorofluorocarbons and dust.
  3. Water pollution Sewage and oil pollution should be known.
  4. Soil pollution: Oil spillage, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • identify the different types of pollution and pollutants;
  • specify different sources of pollutants
  • classify pollutants as biodegradable and non-biodegradable;
  • specify the effects of pollution on the environment;
  • identify measures for control of environmental pollution.

9. Acids, bases and salts

TOPICS:

  1. General characteristics and properties of acids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators, the basicity of acids; normal, acidic, basic and double salts. An acid is defined as a substance whose aqueous solution furnishes H33O++ions or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and tartaric acids as examples of naturally occurring organic acids, alums as examples of double salts, and preparation of salts by neutralization, precipitation and action of acids on metals. Oxides and trioxocarbonate (IV) salts
  2. Qualitative comparison of the conductances of molar solutions of strong and weak acids and bases, the relationship between conductance and amount of ions present.
  3. pH and pOH scale; Simple calculations
  4. Acid/base titrations.
  5. Hydrolysis of salts: Principle Simple examples such as NH44Cl, AlCl33, Na22CO33 and CH33COONa

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • distinguish between the properties of acids and bases;
  • identify the different types of acids and bases;
  • determine the basicity of acids;
  • differentiate between acidity and alkalinity using acid/base indicators;
  • identify the various methods of preparation of salts;
  • classify different types of salts;
  • relate the degree of dissociation to the strength of acids and bases;
  • relate the degree of dissociation to conductance;
  • perform simple calculations on pH and pOH;
  • identify the appropriate acid-base indicator;
  • interpret the graphical representation of titration curves;
  • perform simple calculations based on the mole concept;
  • balance equations for the hydrolysis of salts;
  • deduce the properties (acidic, basic, neutral) of the resultant solution.

10. Oxidation and reduction

TOPICS: 

  1. Oxidation in terms of the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen.
  2. Reduction is the removal of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen.
  3. Oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer.
  4. Use of oxidation numbers. Oxidation and reduction are treated as changes in oxidation numbers and the use of oxidation numbers in balancing simple equations.
  5. IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds using oxidation number.
  6. Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents.

11. Electrolysis

TOPICS:

  1. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
  2. Electrolysis of dilute H22SO44, aqueous CuSO44, CuCl22 solution, dilute and concentrated NaCl solutions and fused NaCl
    • Factors affecting the discharge of ions at the electrodes.
  3. Uses of electrolysis: Purification of metals e.g. copper and production of elements and compounds (Al, Na, O22, Cl22 and NaOH).
  4. Electrochemical cells: Redox series (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au,) half-cell reactions and electrode potentials. (Simple calculations only).
  5. Corrosion as an electrolytic process, cathodic protection of metals, painting, electroplating and coating with grease or oil as ways of preventing iron from corrosion.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes;
  • perform calculations based on Faraday as a mole of electrons.
  • identify suitable electrodes for different electrolytes.
  • specify the chemical reactions at the electrodes;
  • determine the products at the electrodes;
  • identify the factors that affect the products of electrolysis;
  • specify the different areas of application of electrolysis;
  • identify the various electrochemical cells;
  • calculate electrode potentials using half-cell reaction equations;
  • determine the different areas of application of electrolytic processes;
  • identify methods used in protecting metals.

12. Energy changes

TOPICS:

  1. Energy changes ∆H accompanying physical and chemical changes: dissolution of substances in/or reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH, K, NH4Cl. Endothermic +∆H and exothermic -∆H reactions.
  2. Entropy as an order-disorder phenomenon: simple illustrations like mixing of gases and dissolution of salts.
  3. The spontaneity of reactions: ∆Goo = 0 as a criterion for equilibrium, ∆G greater or less than zero as a criterion for non-spontaneity or spontaneity respectively.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • determine the types of heat changes ∆H in physical and chemical processes;
  • interpret graphical representations of heat changes;
  • relate the physical state of a substance to the degree of orderliness;
  • determine the conditions for the spontaneity of a reaction ;
  • relate∆Hoo, ∆Soo and ∆Goo as the driving forces for chemical reactions;
  • solve simple problems based on the relationships ∆Goo  = ∆Hoo – T∆Soo

13. Rates of Chemical Reaction

TOPICS:

  1. Elementary treatment of the following factors which can change the rate of a chemical reaction:
    • Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCl and Na22S22O33 or Mg and HCl
    • Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl and Na22S22O33 HCl and marble and the iodine clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure may be used as a concentration term.
    • Surface area e.g. the reaction between marble and HCl with
    • marble in
    • powdered form
    • lumps of the same mass.
    • Catalyst e.g. the decomposition of H22O22 or KClO33 in the presence or absence of MnO22
  2. Reaction rate curves.
  3. Activation energy Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and the collision theory, effect of light on some reactions. e.g. halogenation of alkanes

14. Chemical equilibrium

TOPICS:

  1. Reversible reactions and factors governing the equilibrium position.
  2. Dynamic equilibrium.
  3. Le Chatelier’s principle and equilibrium constant.
  4. Simple examples include the action of steam on iron and N22O44 ⇌⇌ 2NO22. No calculation will be required.

Study Objectives:

Candidates should be able to:

  • identify the factors that affect the position of equilibrium of a chemical reaction;
  • predict the effects of each factor on the position of equilibrium;
  • determine the effects of these factors on the equilibrium constant.

15. Non-metals and their compounds

TOPICS: 

  1. Hydrogen: commercial production from water gas and cracking of petroleum fractions, laboratory preparation, properties, uses and test for hydrogen.
  2. Halogens: Chlorine is a representative element of the halogen. Laboratory preparation, industrial preparation by electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g. water sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of HCl, plastics and insecticides. Hydrogen chloride and Hydrochloric acid: Preparation and properties. Chlorides and test for chlorides.
  3. Oxygen and Sulphur
    • Oxygen: Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. Commercial production from liquid air. Oxides: Acidic, basic, amphoteric and neutral, trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
    • Sulphur: Uses and allotropes: preparation of allotropes is not expected. Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur(IV) oxide, the reaction of SO22 with alkalis. Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect of acids on salts of thiosulphate (IV), Tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid: Commercial preparation (contact process only), properties as a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating agent and uses. Test for SO2−442−. Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and properties as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating agent. Test for S2−2−
  4. Nitrogen:
    • Laboratory preparation
    • Production from liquid air
    • Ammonia: Laboratory and industrial preparations (Haber Process only), properties and uses, ammonium salts and their uses, oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen (IV) oxide and trinitrate (V) acid. Test for NH+44+
    • Trioxonitrate (V) acid: Laboratory preparation from ammonia; properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt- action of heat and uses. Test for NO−33−
    • Oxides of nitrogen: Properties. The nitrogen cycle.
  5. Carbon:
    1. Allotropes: Uses and properties
    2. Carbon(IV) oxide- Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. The action of heat on trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for CO2−332−
    3. Carbon(II) oxide: Laboratory preparation, properties including its effect on blood; sources of carbon (II) oxide to include charcoal, fire and exhaust fumes.
    4. Coal: Different types, of products, are obtained from the destructive distillation of wood and coal.
    5. Coke: Classification and uses. Manufacture of synthetic gas and uses.

16. Metals and their compounds

TOPICS:

  1. General properties of metals
  2. Alkali metals e.g. sodium
    • Sodium hydroxide:- Production by electrolysis of brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and lead ions. Uses include precipitation of
      metallic hydroxides.
    • Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV) and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (IV): Production by Solvay process, properties and uses, e.g. Na22CO33 in the manufacture of glass.
    • Sodium chloride: its occurrence in seawater and uses, the economic importance of seawater and the recovery of sodium chloride.
  3. Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium; calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV); Properties and uses. Preparation of calcium oxide from sea shells, the chemical composition of cement and the setting of mortar. Test for Ca2+2+.
  4. Aluminium Purification of bauxite, electrolytic extraction, properties and uses of aluminium and its compounds. Test for Al3+3+
  5. Tin Extraction from its ores. Properties and uses.
  6. Metals of the first transition series. Characteristic properties:
    • electron configuration
    • oxidation states
    • complex ion formation
    • formation of coloured ions
    • catalysis
  7. Iron Extraction from sulphide and oxide ores, properties and uses, different forms of iron and their properties and advantages of steel over iron. Test for Fe2+2+ and Fe3+3+
  8. Copper Extraction from sulphide and oxide ores, properties and uses of copper. Preparation and uses of copper(II) tetraoxosulphate(VI). Test for Cu2+2+
    • Alloy Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, type-metal, duralumin, soft solder, permalloy and alnico (constituents and uses only).

17. Organic Compounds

TOPICS:

  1. An introduction to the tetravalency of carbon, the general formula, IUPAC nomenclature and the determination of
    • the empirical formula of each class of organic compounds is mentioned below.
  2. Aliphatic hydrocarbons
    • Alkanes Homologous series in relation to physical properties, substitution reaction and a few examples and uses of halogenated products. Isomerism: structural only (examples on isomerism should not go beyond six carbon atoms). Petroleum: composition, fractional distillation and major products; cracking and reforming, Petrochemicals – starting materials of organic syntheses, quality of petrol and meaning of octane number.
    • Alkenes Isomerism: structural and geometric isomerism, additional and polymerization reactions, polythene and synthetic rubber as examples of products of polymerization and its use in vulcanization.
    • Alkynes Ethyne – production from the action of water on carbides, simple reactions and properties of ethyne.
  3. Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene – structure, properties and uses.
  4. Alkanols Primary, secondary, tertiary – production of ethanol by fermentation and from petroleum by-products. Local examples of fermentation and distillation, e.g. gin from palm wine and other local sources and glycerol as a polyhydric alkanol. Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a distinguishing test among primary, secondary and tertiary alkanols (Lucas test).
  5. Alkanals and alkanones. Chemical test to distinguish between alkanes and alkenones.
  6. Alkanoic acids. Chemical reactions; neutralization and esterification, ethanediol (oxalic) acid as an example of a dicarboxylic acid and benzene carboxylic acid as an
    • example of an aromatic acid.
  7. Alkanoates Formation from alkanoic acids and alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates. Saponification: Production of soap and margarine from alkanoates and distinction between detergents and soaps.
  8. Amines (Alkanamines) Primary, Secondary, and tertiary
  9. Carbohydrates
  10. Classification – mono-, di- and polysaccharides; composition, chemical tests for simple sugars and reaction with concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid. Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulose from cotton and starch from cassava, the uses of sugar and starch in the production of alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and textiles.
    • Proteins: Primary structures, hydrolysis and tests (Ninhydrin, Biuret, Millon’s and xanthoproteic)
    • Enzymes and their functions.
  11. Polymers: Natural and synthetic rubber; addition and condensation polymerization. – Methods of preparation, examples and uses. Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics.

18. Chemistry and Industry

TOPICS:

  1. Chemical industries: Types, raw materials and relevancies; Biotechnology.

Objectives:

Candidates should be able to :

  • classify chemical industries in terms of products;
  • identify raw materials for each industry;
  • distinguish between fine and heavy chemicals;
  • enumerate the relevance of each of these industries;
  • relate industrial processes to biotechnology.

Please feel free to ask any questions you may have about this Jamb Syllabus for Chemistry 2023/2024 in the comment section.

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