NECO Syllabus For Physics 2024

NECO Syllabus For Physics 2024 has been made available to all science students who want to write the upcoming National Examination Council (NECO) and wishes to study the questions that might likely come out in the exam.

This website contains a detailed of the NECO Syllabus For Physics 2024/2025. The syllabus, which was developed from the Senior Secondary School teaching curriculum, serves as a guide to the course content for the physics examination.

It is also well structured using the conceptual strategy. Each of the main concepts—matter, location, motion, and time; energy; waves; fields; atomic and nuclear physics; electronics—is taken into consideration and serves as a foundation for other sub-concepts that are further built upon it. We urge you to Continue reading the article below for more detailed information.

Aims and Objectives 

The curriculum’s objectives are to empower candidates to

(1) Acquire a proper understanding of the basic principles and applications of Physics;

(2) Develop scientific skills and attitudes as pre-requisites for further scientific activities;

(3) Recognize the usefulness, and limitations of the scientific method to appreciate its applicability in other disciplines and in every life;

(4) Create skills, attitudes, and abilities that promote efficient and secure practice;

(5) Accuracy, precision, objectivity, integrity, initiative, and innovation are some examples of good scientific attitudes to cultivate.

DETAILED SYLLABUS

In order to fully cover this syllabus, it is crucial that applicants engage in practical activities.

Candidates must respond to inquiries on the themes listed in the ” TOPIC ” column. The “NOTES” are not to be regarded as a complete list of restrictions and examples, but rather as a guide to the range of the questions that will be asked.

NOTE: Questions will be set in S.I. units. However, multiples or sub-multiples of the units may be used. PART 1 INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE & TIME

1. Concepts of matter

The simple Structure of Matter should be discussed. Three physics states of matter, namely solid, liquid, and gas should be treated. Evidence of the particle nature of matter e.g. Brownian motion experiment, Kinetic theory of matter.

Use of the theory to explain; states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas), pressure in a gas, evaporation, and boiling; cohesion, adhesion, and capillarity.

Crystalline and amorphous substances to be compared (Arrangement of atoms in crystalline structure to be described e.g. face-centered, body-centered

2. Fundamental and derived quantities and units (a) Fundamental quantities and units

(b) Derived quantities and units

Length, mass, time, electric current luminous intensity, thermodynamic temperature, and amount of substance as examples of fundamental quantities, and m, kg, s, A, cd, K, and mol as their respective units.

Volume, density, and speed as derived quantities and m3, kgm-3, and ms-1 as their respective units

3. Position, distance, and displacement.

(a) Concept of position as a location of point-rectangular coordinates.

(b) Measurement of distance

(c) Concept of direction as a way of locating a point–bearing

(d) Distinction between distance and displacement

The position of objects in space using the X, Y, and Z axes should be mentioned.

Use of string, meter rule, vernier calipers, and micrometer screw gauge. The degree of accuracy should be noted. Metre (m) is a unit of distance.

Use of a compass and a protractor.

Graphical location and directions by axes to be stressed

 4. Mass and weight

The distinction between mass and weight

Use of lever balance and chemical/beam balance to measure mass and spring balance to measure weight. Mention should be made of electronic/digital balance.

Kilogram (kg) as a unit of mass and newton (N) as a unit of weight

 5. Time

(a) Concept of time as an interval between physical events

(b) Measurement of time

The use of heart-beat, sand-clock, ticker-timer, pendulum, and stopwatch/clock.

Second(s) as a unit of time

 6. Fluid at rest

(a) Volume, density, and relative density

(b) Pressure in fluids

(c) Equilibrium of bodies

(i) Archimedes’ principle

(ii) Law of flotation

Experimental determination for solids and liquids.

Concept and definition of pressure. Pascal’s principle, application of the principle to the hydraulic press and car brakes.

Dependence of pressure on the depth of a point below a liquid surface. Atmospheric pressure. Simple barometer, manometer, siphon, syringe, and pump. Determination of the relative density of liquids with U-tube and Hare’s apparatus.

Identification of the forces acting on a body partially or completely immersed in a fluid.

Use of the principle to determine the relative densities of solids and liquids.

Establishing the conditions for a body to float in

a fluid. Applications in hydrometers, balloons, boats, ships, submarines, etc

7. Motion

(a) Types of motion: Random, rectilinear, translational, Rotational, circular, orbital, spin, Oscillatory.

(b) Relative motion

(c) Cause of motion

(d) Types of force:

(i) Contact force

(ii) Non-contact force (field force)

(e) Solid friction

Mass, distance, speed, and time as examples of scalars.

Weight, displacement, velocity, and acceleration as examples of vectors.

Use of force board to determine the resultant of two forces.

Obtain the resultant of two velocities analytically and graphically

(f) Viscosity (friction in fluids)

(g) Simple ideas of circular motion

Only qualitative treatment is required. The illustration should be given for the various types of motion.

Numerical problems on co-linear motion may be set.

Force as a cause of motion.

Push and pull These are field forces namely; electric and magnetic attractions and repulsions; gravitational pull.

The frictional force between two stationary bodies (static) and between two bodies in relative motion (dynamic). Coefficients of limiting friction and their determinations.

Advantages of friction e.g. in locomotion, friction belt, grindstone. Disadvantages of friction e.g reduction of efficiency, wear, and tear of machines. Methods of reducing friction; e.g. use of ball bearings, rollers, streamlining, and lubrication.

Definition and effects. A simple explanation as an extension of friction in fluids. Fluid friction and its application in lubrication should be treated qualitatively. Terminal velocity and its determination.

Experiments with a string tied to a stone at one end and whirled around should be carried out to

(i) Demonstrate motion in a Vertical/horizontal circle.

8. Speed and velocity

(a) Concept of speed as a change of distance with time

(b) Concept of velocity as a change of displacement with time

(c) Uniform/non-uniform speed/velocity

(d) Distance/displacement-time graph

Metre per second (ms-1) as a unit of speed/velocity.

Ticker-timer or similar devices should be used to determine speed/velocity. Definition of velocity as ∆ s ∆t.

Determination of instantaneous speed/velocity from distance/displacement-time graph and by calculation.

9. Rectilinear acceleration

(a) Concept of Acceleration/deceleration as increase/decrease in velocity with time.

(b) Uniform/non-uniform acceleration

(c) Velocity-time graph

(d) Equations of motion with constant acceleration;

The motion under gravity is a special case.

Unit of acceleration as ms-2

A ticker timer or similar devices should be used to determine acceleration. Definition of acceleration as ∆ v ∆t.

Determination of acceleration and displacement from a velocity-time graph

Use of equations to solve numerical problems

10. Scalars and vectors

(a) Concept of scalars as physical quantities with magnitude and no direction

(b) Concept of vectors as physical quantities with both magnitude and direction.

(c) Vector representation

(d) Addition of vectors

(e) Resolution of vectors

(f) Resultant velocity using vector representation.

Mass, distance, speed, and time as examples of scalars.

Weight, displacement, velocity, and acceleration as examples of vectors.

Use of force board to determine the resultant of two forces.

Obtain the resultant of two velocities analytically and graphically

11. Equilibrium of forces

(a) Principle of moments

(b) Conditions for an equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces.

(c) Centre of gravity and stability

Torque/Moment of force. Simple treatment of a couple, e.g. turning off the water tap, corkscrew, and steering wheel.)

Use of force board to determine resultant and equilibrant forces. Treatment should include the resolution of forces into two perpendicular directions and the composition of forces Parallelogram of forces. Triangle of forces.

Should be treated experimentally. Treatment should include stable, unstable, and neutral equilibrium.

12. Simple harmonic motion

(a) Illustration, explanation, and definition of simple harmonic motion (S.H.M

(b) Speed and acceleration of S.H.M.

(c) Period, frequency, and amplitude of a body executing S.H.M.

(d) Energy of S.H.M

(e) Forced vibration and resonance

Use of a loaded test tube oscillating vertically in a liquid, simple pendulum, spiral spring, and bifilar suspension to demonstrate simple harmonic motion.

Relate linear and angular speeds and linear and angular accelerations. Experimental determination of ‘g’ with the simple pendulum and helical spring. The theory of the principles should be treated but a derivation of the formula for ‘g’ is not required

Simple problems may be set on simple harmonic motion. Mathematical proof of simple harmonic motion in respect of spiral spring, bifilar suspension, and loaded test tube is not required.

13. Newton’s laws of motion

(a) First Law: Inertia of rest and inertia of motion

(b) Second Law: Force, acceleration, momentum, and impulse

(c) Third Law: Action and reaction

The distinction between inertia mass and weight

Use of timing devices e.g. ticker-timer to determine the acceleration of a falling body and the relationship when the accelerating force is constant.

Linear momentum and its conservation. Collision of elastic bodies in a straight line.

Applications: recoil of a gun, jet, and rocket propulsions.

14. Energy:

(a) Forms of energy

(b) World energy resources

(c) Conservation of energy.

Examples of various forms of energy should be mentioned e.g. mechanical (potential and kinetic), heat chemical, electrical, light, sound, and nuclear.

Renewable (e.g. solar, wind, tides, hydro, ocean waves) and non-renewable (e.g. petroleum, coal, nuclear, biomass) sources of energy should be discussed briefly.

Statement of the principle of conservation of energy and its use in explaining energy transformations

15. Work, Energy, and Power

(a) Concept of work as a measure of energy transfer

(b) Concept of energy as the capability to do work

(c) Work done in a gravitational field.

(d) Types of mechanical energy

(i) Potential energy (P.E.)

(ii) Kinetic energy (K.E)

(e) Conservation of mechanical energy.

(f) Concept of power as the time rate of doing work.

(g) Application of mechanical energy machines. Levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wedge, screw, wheel and axle, gears

Unit of energy as the joule (J)

The unit of energy is the joule (J) while the unit of electrical consumption is KWh.

Work done in lifting a body and by falling bodies

The derivation of P.E and K.E is expected to be known. Identification of types of energy possessed by a body under given conditions.

Verification of the principle

Unit of power as the watt (W)

The force ratio (F.R), mechanical advantage (M.A), velocity ratio (V.R), and efficiency of each machine should be treated. Identification of simple machines that make up a given complicated machine e.g. bicycle. Effects of friction on Machines. Reduction of friction in machines

16. Heat Energy

(a) Temperature and its measurement

(b) Effects of heat on matter e.g

(i) Rise in temperature (ii) Change of phase state (iii) Expansion (iv) Change of resistance

(c) Thermal expansion – Linear, area, and volume expansivities
Unit

(d) Heat transfer – Condition, convention, and radiation.

(e) The gas laws-Boyle’s law Charles’ law, pressure law, and general gas law

(f) Measurement of heat energy: (i) Concept of heat capacity (ii) Specific heat capacity.

(g) Latent heat (i) Concept of latent heat

(ii) Melting point and boiling Point

(iii) Specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization

(h) Evaporation and boiling

(i) Vapour and vapor pressure

(j) Humidity, relative humidity, and dew point

(k) Humidity and the weather

The concept of temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. Construction and graduation of a simple thermometer. Properties of thermometric liquids. The following thermometer should be treated: Constant–volume gas thermometers, resistance thermometers, thermocouples, liquid-in-glass thermometers including maximum and minimum thermometers, and clinical thermometers, pyrometers should be mentioned. Celsius and Absolute scales of temperature. Kelvin and degree Celsius as units of temperature.

Use of the Kinetic theory to explain the effects of heat.

Mention should be made of the following effects: Change of color Thermionic emission Change in chemical properties

Qualitative and quantitative treatment Consequences and application of expansions. Expansion in buildings and bridges, bimetallic strips, thermostats, and overhead cables caused sagging and in railway lines causing buckling. The real and apparent expansion of liquids. Anomalous expansion of water.

Per Kelvin (K-1) as the unit of expansivity.

Use of the kinetic theory to explain the modes of heat transfer. Simple experimental illustrations. Treatment should include an explanation of land and sea breezes, ventilation, and applications in cooling devices. The vacuum flask.

The laws should be verified using simple apparatus. Use of the kinetic theory to explain the laws. Simple problems may be set. Mention should be made of the operation of safety airbags in vehicles.

Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific heat capacities of solids and liquids. Land and sea breezes are related to the specific heat capacity of water and land, with Jkg-1 K-1 as a unit of specific heat capacity.

Explanation and types of latent heat.

Determination of the melting point of a solid and the boiling point of a liquid. Effects of impurities and pressure on melting and boiling points. Application in a pressure cooker.

Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice and of vaporization of steam. Applications in refrigerators and air conditioners.

Jkg-1 as a unit of specific latent heat

Effects of temperature, humidity, surface area, and draught on evaporation are to be discussed.

Explanation of vapor and vapor pressure. Demonstration of vapor pressure using simple experiments. Saturated vapor pressure and its relation to boiling.

Measurement of dew point and relative humidity. Estimation of humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry-bulb hygrometers.

Formation of dew, fog, and rain

17. Production and propagation of waves

(a) Production and propagation of mechanical waves

(b) Pulsating system: Energy transmitted with definite speed, frequency, and wavelength.

(c) Waveform

(d) Mathematical relationship connecting frequency (f), wavelength(), period (T), and velocity (v)

Use of ropes and springs (slinky) to generate mechanical waves

Use of ripple tank to show water waves and to demonstrate energy propagation by waves. Hertz(Hz) is a unit of frequency.

Description and graphical representation. Amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and period. Sound and light as wave phenomena. V= f and T = simple problems may be set

18. Types of waves

(a) Transverse and longitudinal

(b) Mathematical representation of wave motion

Examples to be given

Equation y = A sin (wt±) to be explained Questions on phase difference will not be set

19. Properties of waves

Reflection, refraction, diffraction, Interference, superposition of progressive waves producing standing stationary waves

Ripple tanks should be extensively used to demonstrate these properties with plane and circular waves. Explanation of the properties

20. Light waves

(a) Sources of light

(b) Rectilinear propagation of light

(c) Reflection of light at the plane surface: plane mirror

(d) Reflection of light at curved surfaces: concave and convex mirrors

(e) Refraction of light at plane surfaces: rectangular gla

(g) Application of lenses in optical instruments.

(h) Dispersion of white light by a triangular glass prism.

Natural and artificial. Luminous and non-luminous bodies

ss prism (block) and triangular prism.

(f) Refraction of light at curved

surfaces: Converging and diverging lenses

Formation of Shadows and Eclipse. Pinhole camera. Simple numerical problems may be set.

Regular and irregular reflections. Verification of laws of reflection. Formation of images. Inclined plane mirrors. Rotation of mirrors. Applications in periscope, sextant, and kaleidoscope.

Laws of reflection. Formation of images. Characteristics of images. Use of mirror formulae:
+ = and magnification m = to solve numerical problems. (Derivation of formulae is not required)

Experimental determination of the focal length of a concave mirror. Applications in searchlights, parabolic and driving mirrors, car headlamps, etc.

Laws of refraction. Formation of images, real and Apparent depths. Critical angle and total internal reflection. Lateral displacement and angle of deviation. Use of minimum deviation equation:

Sin (A + Dm) = 2

Sin A/2 (Derivation of the formula is not required) Applications: periscope, prism binoculars, optical fibers. The Mirage.

Formation of images. Use of lens formulae + = and magnification to solve numerical problems

(derivation of the formulae not required). Experimental determination of the focal length of the converging lens. Power of lens in dioptres (D)

A simple camera, the human eye, a film projector, simple and compound microscopes, and terrestrial and astronomical telescopes. Angular magnification. Prism binoculars. The structure and function of the camera and the human eye should be compared. Defects of the human eye and their corrections.

Production of the pure spectrum of white light. Recombination of the components of the spectrum. Colors of objects. Mixing colored lights

21. Electromagnetic waves: Types of radiation in electromagnetic Spectrum

Elementary description and uses of various types of radiation: Radio, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

22. Sound Waves

(a) Sources of sound

(b) Transmission of sound waves

(c) Speed of sound in solid, liquid, and air

(d) Echoes and reverberation

(e) Noise and music

(f) Characteristics of sound

(g) Vibration in strings

(h) Forced vibration

(i) Resonance (ii) Harmonies and overtones

(i) Vibration of air in a pipe – open and closed pipes

Experiment to show that a material medium is required.

To be compared. The dependence of the velocity of sound

on temperature and pressure is to be considered.

Use of echoes in mineral exploration, and determination of ocean depth. Thunder and multiple reflections in a large room as examples of reverberation.

Pitch, loudness, and quality

The use of a sonometer to demonstrate the dependence of frequency (f) on length (1), tension (T) and mass per unit length (liner density) (m) of string should be treated. Use of the formula:o =

In solving simple numerical problems. Applications in stringed instruments: e.g. guitar, piano, harp, and violin.

Use of resonance boxes and a sonometer to illustrate forced vibration.

Use of overtones to explain the quality of a musical note. Applications in percussion instruments: e.g drum, bell, cymbals, xylophone.

Measurement of velocity of sound in air or frequency of tuning fork using the resonance tube. Use of the relationship v = in solving numerical problems. End correction is expected to be mentioned. Applications in wind instruments e.g. organ, flute, trumpet, horn, clarinet, and saxophone

 PART IV FIELDS

23. Description of property of fields.

(a) Concept of fields: Gravitational, electric, and Magnetic

(b) Properties of a force field

Use of compass needle and iron filings to show magnetic field lines

 24. Gravitational field

(a) Acceleration due to gravity, (g)

(b) Gravitational force between two masses:

Newton’s law of gravitation

(c) Gravitational potential and escape velocity

G as gravitational field intensity should be mentioned, g = F/m.

Masses include protons, electrons, and planets

Universal gravitational constant (G) Relationship between ‘G’ and ‘g’

Calculation of the escape velocity of a rocket from the earth’s gravitational field

25. Electric Field

(1) Electrostatics (a) Production of electric charges

(b) Types of distribution of charges

(c) Storage of charges

(d) Electric lines of force

(e) Electric force between point charges: Coulomb’s law

(f) Concepts of an electric field, electric field intensity (potential gradient), and electric potential.

(g) Capacitance- Definition, arrangement, and application

Production by friction, induction, and contact.

A simple electroscope should be used to detect and compare charges on differently-shaped bodies.

Application in light conductors.

Determination, properties, and field patterns of charges

The permittivity of a medium.

Calculation of electric field intensity and the electric potential of simple systems.

Factors affecting the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor. The farad (F) is a unit of capacitance. Capacitors in series and in parallel.

Energy is stored in a charged capacitor. Uses of capacitors: e.g. in radio and Television. (Derivation of formulae for capacitance is not required)

(2) Current electricity

(a) Production of electric current from primary and secondary cells

(b) Potential difference and electric current

(c) Electric circuit

(d) Electric conduction through materials

(e) Electric energy and power

(f) Shunt and multiplier

(g) Resistivity and Conductivity

(h) Measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance, e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell

Simple cell and its defects. Daniel cell, Lechanché cell (wet and dry). Lead-acid accumulator. Alkaline-cadmium cell. E.m.f. of a cell, the volt (V) as a unit of e.m.f.

Ohm’s law and resistance. Verification of Ohm’s law. The volt (V), ampere (A), and ohm (Ω) as units of p.d., current, and resistance respectively.

Series and parallel arrangement of cells and resistors. Lost volt and internal resistance of batteries.

Ohmic and non-ohmic conductors. Examples of ohmic conductors are metals, and non-ohmic conductors are semiconductors.

Quantitative definition of electrical energy and power. Heating effect of an electric current and its application. Conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy e.g. electric motors. Conversion of solar energy to electrical and heat energies: e.g. solar cells, solar heaters.

Use in the conversion of a galvanometer into an ammeter and a voltmeter.

Factors affecting the electrical resistance of the material should be treated. Simple problems may be set.

Principle of operation and use of ammeter, voltmeter, and potentiometer. The Wheatstone Bridge and meter bridge

 26. Magnetic field

(a) Properties of magnets and magnetic materials.

(b) Magnetization and demagnetization.

(c) Concept of magnetic field

(d) Magnetic force on

(i) a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field;

(ii) between two parallel current-carrying conductors

(e) Use of electromagnets

(f) The Earth’s magnetic field

(g) Magnetic force on a moving charged particle

Practical examples such as soft iron, steel, and alloys.

Temporary and permanent magnets. Comparison of iron and steel as magnetic materials.

Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density. Magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a current-carrying conductor, and a solenoid. Plotting of line of force to locate neutral points Units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density as Weber (Wb) and Tesla (T) respectively.

Qualitative treatment only. Applications: electric motor and moving-coil galvanometer.

Examples in electric bells, telephone earpieces, etc.

Mariner’s compass. Angles of dip and declination.

Solving simple problems involving the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field, using F=qvB sin

 27. Electromagnetic field

(a) Concept of electromagnetic field

(i) Shunt and multiplier

(j) Resistivity and Conductivity

(k) Measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance, e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell.

Identifying the directions of the current, magnetic field, and force in an electromagnetic field (Fleming’s left-hand rule

Use in the conversion of a galvanometer into an ammeter and a voltmeter.

Factors affecting the electrical resistance of the material should be treated. Simple problems may be set.

Principle of operation and use of ammeter, voltmeter, and potentiometer. The Wheatstone Bridge and meter bridge

 26. Magnetic field

(h) Properties of magnets and magnetic materials.

(i) Magnetization and demagnetization.

(j) Concept of magnetic field

(k) Magnetic force on

(i) a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field;

(ii) between two parallel current-carrying conductors (l) Use of electromagnets

(m) The earth’s magnetic field

(n) Magnetic force on a moving charged particle

Practical examples such as soft iron, steel, and alloys.

Temporary and permanent magnets. Comparison of iron and steel as magnetic materials.

Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density. Magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a current-carrying conductor, and a solenoid. Plotting of line of force to locate neutral points Units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density as Weber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively.

Qualitative treatment only. Applications: electric motor and moving-coil galvanometer.

Examples in electric bells, telephone earpieces,s, etc.

Mariner’s compass. Angles of dip and declination.

Solving simple problems involving the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field, using F=qvB sin

27. Electromagnetic field

(a) Concept of electromagnetic field

(b) Electromagnetic induction

Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, and the motor-generator effect

(c) Inductance

(d) Eddy currents

(e) Power transmission and distribution

Identifying the directions of a current, magnetic field, and force in an electromagnetic field (Fleming’s left-hand rule

Applications: Generator (d.c.and a.c.) induction coil and transformer. The principles underlying the production of direct and alternating currents should be treated. Equation E = Eo sent should be explained.

Qualitative explanation of self and mutual inductance. The unit of inductance is Henry (H). (E =LI2)

Application in radio, T.V., transformer. (Derivation of the formula is not required).

A method of reducing eddy current losses should be treated. Applications in induction furnaces, speedometers, etc.

Reduction of power losses in high-tension transmission lines. A household wiring system should be discussed.

28. Simple a.c. circuits

(a) Graphical representation of e.m.f and current in an a.c. circuit.

(b) Peak and r..m.s. values

(c) Series circuit containing resistor, inductor, and capacitor

(d) Reactance and impedance

(e) Vector diagrams

(f) Resonance in an a.c, circuit

(g) Power in an a.c. circuit

Graphs of equation I – Io sin wt and\E = Eo sent should be treated.

The phase relationship between voltage and current in the circuit elements; resistor, inductor, and capacitor

Simple calculations involving a.c. circuit. (Derivation of formulae is not required.) XL and Xc should be treated. Simple numerical problems may be set.

Applications in the tuning of radio and T.V. should be discussed

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

 29. Structure of the atom

(a) Models of the atom

(b) Energy quantization

(c) Photoelectric effect

(d) Thermionic emission

(e) X-rays

Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, and electron-cloud (wave-mechanical) models should be discussed qualitatively. Limitations of each model. Quantization of angular momentum (Bohr)

Energy levels in the atom. Color and light frequency. Treatment should include the following: Frank-Hertz experiment, Line spectra from hot bodies, absorption spectra, and spectra of discharge lamps.

Explanation of photoelectric effect. Dual nature of light. Work function and threshold frequency. Einstein’s photoelectric equation and its explanation. Application in T.V., camera, etc. Simple problems may be set.

Explanation and applications

Production of X-rays and structure of X-ray tube. Types, characteristics, properties, uses, and hazards of X-rays. Safety precautions

 30. Structure of the nucleus

(a) Composition of the nucleus

(a) Radioactivity – Natural and artificial

(b) Nuclear reactions — Fusion and Fission

Radioactive elements, radioactive emissions (,β,)and their properties and uses. Detection of radiations by G – M counter, photographic plates, etc. should be mentioned.

Radioactive decay, half-life, and decay constant. Transformation of elements. Applications of radioactivity in agriculture, medicine, industry, archaeology, etc.

The distinction between fusion and fission. Binding energy, mass defect, and energy equation:

E= ∆ mc2

Nuclear reactors. Atomic bomb. Radiation hazards and safety precautions. Peaceful uses of nuclear reactions

 31. Wave-particle paradox

(a) Electron diffraction (b) Duality of matter

Simple illustration of the dual nature of light

HARMONISED TOPICS FOR SHORT STRUCTURED QUESTIONS FOR ALL MEMBER COUNTRIES

 1. Derived quantities and dimensional Analysis

Fundamental quantities and units e.g. Length, mass, time, electric current, luminous intensity e.t.c., m, kg,s, A, cd, e.t.c. as their respective units Derived quantities and units. e.g. volume, density, speed, etc. m3, kgm-3, ms-1 e.t.c. as their respective units Explanation of dimensions in terms of fundamental and derived quantities.

Uses of dimensions – to verify dimensional correctness of a given equation – to derive the relationship between quantities – to obtain derived units.

2. Projectile motion concept of projectiles as an object is thrown/release into space

Applications of projectiles in warfare, sports, etc. Simple problems involving range, maximum height, and time of flight may be set.

 3. Satellites and rockets

Meaning of a satellite comparison of natural and artificial satellites parking orbits, Geostationary satellites, and period of revolution and speed of a satellite. Uses of satellites and rockets

4. Elastic Properties of solid: Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, and work done in springs and string

Thermal conductivity: Solar energy collector and Black body Radiation.

The behavior of elastic materials under stress – features of load – extension graph Simple calculations on Hook’s law and Young’s modulus.

Solar energy; solar panel for heat energy supply. Explanation of a blackbody. Variation of the intensity of black body radiation with wavelength at different temperatures

5. Fibre Optics

Explanation of the concept of fiber optics. Principle of transmission of light through an optical fiber Applications of fiber optics e.g. local area Networks (LAN) medicine, renting devices, carrying laser beams e.t.c

 6. Introduction to LASER

Meaning of LASER Types of LASERS (Solid state, gas, liquid, and semi-conductor LASERS Application of LASERS (in Scientific research, communication, medicine military technology, Holograms, etc. Dangers involved in using LASERS

7. Magnetic materials

Uses of magnets and ferromagnetic materials

8. Electrical Conduction through materials [Electronic]

The distinction between conductors, semiconductors, and insulators in terms of band theory. Semiconductor materials (silicon and germanium) Meaning of intrinsic semiconductors. (Example of materials silicon and germanium). Charge carriers Doping production of p-type and n-type extrinsic semiconductors. Junction diode – forward and reverse biasing, voltage characteristics. Uses of diodes Half and full wave rectification

 9. Structure of Matter

Use of kinetic theory to explain diffusion.

 10. Wave-particle paradox

Electron diffraction Duality of matter Simple illustrations of the dual nature of light.

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