NECO Syllabus for Agricultural Science 2024

Dear NECO candidate, did you know that viewing and going through the NECO syllabus for each subject you are sitting for will help you prepare better for this examination and also help you to ace the examination? I bet you didn’t, now, just imagine reading for your examinations based on the syllabus provided. This will give you a sense of direction and it will help you touch each topic in the subject so that your knowledge of the subject will be broader.

You may ask, how do I get ahold of this syllabus? The answer is this article, in this article, we have compiled the syllabus for agricultural science to help you prepare. Note that NECO never publishes a syllabus but makes use of the WAEC syllabus since they are similar examinations.

Before we proceed, we will like to quickly note that NECO as a body never releases syllabi as WAEC and NECO are both similar exams.

NECO Syllabus for Agricultural Science: Scheme

There will be three papers: Papers 1, 2, and 3 all of which must be taken.

Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken in one sitting.

PAPER 1: Will consist of fifty multiple choice questions to be answered within 50 minutes for 50 marks.

NECO Syllabus For Agricultural Science 

A. Basic Concepts

1. Meaning and importance of agriculture (a) Definition and branches of agricultural science. (b) Importance of agriculture to the individual, community, and nation.

2. Problems of agricultural development and possible solutions

(a) Problems related to (i) land tenure; (ii) basic amenities; (iii) finance; (iv) transportation; (v) storage and processing facilities; (vi) agricultural education and extension; (vii) tools and machinery; (viii) farm inputs; (ix) marketing system; (x) environmental degradation.

(b) Possible solutions to identified problems

3. Meaning and differences between subsistence and commercial agriculture (a) Meaning of subsistence and commercial agriculture. (b) Differences between subsistence and commercial agriculture based on their characteristics

The assessment would include the incidence of pests and diseases, vagaries of weather, labor, and government policy

(c) Advantages and disadvantages of subsistence and commercial agriculture. (d) Problems of subsistence and commercial agriculture.

4. Roles of government in agricultural development

(a) Agricultural finance: (i) credit; (ii) subsidy.

(b) Agricultural education

(c) Agricultural extension services.

(d) Agricultural policies and programs

5. Role of non-governmental organizations in agricultural development

(a) Meaning of non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

(b) Roles of NGOs in agricultural development.

6. Agricultural laws and reforms

(a) Land tenure systems in West Africa.

(b) Government laws on land use in West

Africa.

(c) Advantages and disadvantages of the land use Act (Decree) and reforms in West Africa.

The assessment would cover past and present programs e.g. OFN, ADP, Farm Settlement, Agricultural Sector Rehabilitation Project (ASRP), and National Aids Coordination Secretariat.

Examples of NGOs West African Rice Development Association (WARDA), International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) would be assessed

The assessment would include the land use Act (Decree), Land Reforms in West Africa.

B. Agricultural Economy

1. Meaning and importance of agricultural ecology

(a) Meaning of agricultural ecology and ecosystem. (b) Components of farm ecosystem e.g. biotic and abiotic (c) Interactions of the components in the terrestrial and aquatic agro-ecosystem.

2. Land and its uses (a) Meaning of land.

(b) Characteristics of land – free gift of nature, immobile, limited in supply, etc.

(c) Uses of land: (i) agricultural purposes: – crop production:- wildlife conservation/game reserve; – livestock production etc.

(ii) non-agricultural purposes: – industry; – housing; – transport etc.

3. Factors affecting land availability for agricultural purposes

(a) Physical factors: (i) soil type; (ii) topography;

(iii) land degradation; (iv) soil pollution.

Interaction of farm crops/animals with other components of the ecosystem in farm settings such as mono or sole cropping system, mixed cropping system, mixed farming system, fish ponds and forest (rain or savannah) would be assessed.

The assessment would include uses of land for aquaculture, forestry, and apiculture.

Non-agricultural uses of land such as health centers, churches/mosques, mining, recreational centers, schools, and markets would be assessed.

(b) Economic factors: (i) population pressure; (ii) expansion of industries; (iii) mining/mineral exploitation; (iv) recreation/tourism.

(c) Socio-cultural factors: (i) land tenure system; (ii) religious purpose (church, mosque and shrine) etc.

4. Agro-allied industries and the relationship between agriculture and industry

(a) Agro-based industries and raw materials: (i) paper industry – pulp wood; (ii) beverage industry – cocoa, tea etc; (iii) textile industry – cotton; (iv) soap industry – oil, seeds, etc. (b) Relationship between agriculture and industries: (i) Agriculture provides a market for industrial products e.g. farm machinery, chemicals; (ii) Agriculture provides food for industrial workers. 5. Environmental factors affecting crop and animal distribution and production

(a) Climatic factors e.g. rainfall, temperature, light, wind, relative humidity.

The assessment would include other agro-based industries and raw materials e.g. leather industry – hides and skin, canning industry – meat and fish.

The assessment would include other relationships between agriculture and industries.

(b) Biotic factors e.g. predators, parasites, soil micro-organisms, pests, pathogens, and weeds; interrelationships such as competition, parasitism, and mutualism (symbiosis). (c) Edaphic factors: soil pH, soil texture, soil structure, soil type etc.

6. Rock formation

(a) Types of rock: (i) igneous; (ii) sedimentary; (iii) metamorphic.

(b) Processes of rock formation.

7. Soil formation and profile development (a) Factors of soil formation: the parent rock, organisms, climate, topography, and time. (b) Processes of soil formation: (i) physical weathering; (ii) chemical weathering. (c) Soil profile development.

8. Types, composition, and properties of soil

(a) Types of soil. (b) The chemical and biological composition of soil: (i) soil macro and micronutrients; (ii) soil water; (iii) soil macro-organisms; (iv) soil microbes; (v) soil air. (c) Soil pH. (d) Physical properties of soil: (i) soil texture; (ii) soil structure;

The assessment would cover identification, description, and examples of rock types.

The assessment would cover how igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are formed.

The role played by each factor in soil formation would be assessed.

The meaning, importance, identification, and description of each horizon of the soil profile would be assessed.

The assessment would cover types of soil and their separation into sand, silt, and clay fractions, water holding capacity, porosity, capillarity, consistency, etc.

Determination of soil pH, causes and correction of soil acidity/alkalinity would be assessed.

9. Plant nutrients and nutrient cycle

(a) Macro and micronutrients; their functions and deficiency symptoms in crops. (b) Factors affecting the availability of nutrients in soil such as pH, excess of other nutrients, leaching, crop removal, oxidation, and burning. (c) Methods of replenishing lost nutrients, e.g. crop rotation, organic manuring, fertilizer application, fallowing, liming, and cover-cropping. (d) Nitrogen, carbon, water, and phosphorus cycles.

(e) Organic agriculture – meaning and importance.

10. Irrigation

(a) Meaning of irrigation system. (b) Types of irrigation systems: (i) overhead e.g. sprinkler; (ii) surface e.g. flooding, furrow/channel, basin, border; (iii) underground e.g. perforated pipes, drips. (c) Advantages and disadvantages of irrigation systems. (d) Importance of irrigation. (e) Problems associated with irrigation.

11. Drainage (a) Meaning of drainage. (b) Importance of drainage. (c) Types of drainage systems: (i) surface drainage e.g. channel, furrow; (ii) subsurface/underground drainage.

(d) Advantages and disadvantages of drainage systems.

Macro-nutrients such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and Micro–nutrients such as Zn, Fe, Mo, Co, Bo, and Cu would be assessed.

Types of fertilizers and methods of fertilizer application would be assessed.

The assessment would include the description and importance of nitrogen, carbon and water cycles

12. Agricultural pollution (a) Meaning of agricultural pollution. (b) Causes/sources of pollution of agricultural lands and fish ponds: (i) excessive application of agricultural chemicals; (ii) marine and oil spillage; (iii) livestock waste and dung disposal etc. (c) Effects of land/pond pollution on farmers and agricultural productivity.

 C. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING/MECHANIZATION

1. Simple farm tools (a) Meaning of simple farm tools. (b) Types of simple farm tools – cutlass, hoe, spade, shovel, etc. (c) General maintenance of simple farm tools.

2. Farm machinery and implements (a) Farm machinery: (i) tractor; (ii) bulldozer; (iii) shellers; (iv) dryers; (v) incubators; (vi) milking machines; (vii) combine harvester etc.

(b) Tractor-coupled implements: (i) ploughs; (ii) harrows; (iii) ridgers; (iv) planters; (v) harvesters; (vi) sprayers etc.

Ways of minimizing land/pond pollution would be assessed.

The assessment would include identification, description, and uses of each of the tools.

The assessment would include the meaning, uses/functions, and identification of different parts of each of the farm machinery and implements. Engineering details are however not required.

3. Maintenance practices and precautionary measures (a) Reasons for maintaining farm machines. (b) Maintenance of farm machinery:

(i) check water and oil levels regularly; (ii) carry out routine service; (iii) keep machines clean etc.

4. Agricultural mechanization (a) Meaning of agricultural mechanization. (b) Mechanized agricultural operations. (c) Advantages and disadvantages of agricultural mechanization. (d) Limitations of agricultural mechanization.

5. Prospects of agricultural mechanization

6. Farm power (a) Sources of farm power. (b) Advantages and disadvantages of different sources of farm power.

7. Farm surveying (a) Meaning of farm surveying. (b) Common survey equipment. (c) Uses of farm survey equipment. (d) Maintenance of farm survey equipment. (e) Importance of farm surveying.

8. Farm planning (a) Meaning of farm planning. (b) Factors to be considered in farm planning. (c) Importance of farm planning

The assessment would include precautionary measures in the use of farm machinery.

Mechanized agricultural operations: ploughing, harrowing, planting, harvesting, milking, etc would be assessed.

Possible ways of improving agricultural mechanization such as developing less expensive machines and establishing agricultural engineering schools for personnel would be assessed.

Engineering details are not required.

9. Principles of farmstead planning (a) Meaning of farmstead. (b) Importance of farmstead planning

The assessment would cover site selection, location of structures, and sketching

(c) Factors to be considered in the design of a farmstead. (d) Farmstead layout.

D. CROP PRODUCTION

1. Classification of crops (a) Classification of crops based on their uses e.g. cereals, pulses, roots and tubers, and vegetables. (b) Classification based on their life cycle e.g. annual, biennial, perennial, ephemeral. (c) Classification based on their morphology e.g. monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous crops.

2. Husbandry of selected crops:- botanical names and common names of the crop, varieties/types, climatic and soil requirements, land preparation, methods of propagation, planting date, seed rate, spacing, sowing depth, and nursery requirements, cultural practices: supplying, thinning, manuring and fertilizer requirement and application, weeding, pests and disease control, harvesting, processing and storage of at least one representative crop from each of the following crop groupings: (a) Cereals e.g. maize, rice, guinea corn, millet; (b) Pulses (grain legumes) e.g. cowpea, soya bean, pigeon pea.

General knowledge of husbandry of all the crops listed is presumed

(c) Roots and tubers e.g. cassava, yam, potatoes; (d) Vegetables e.g. tomatoes, onion, amaranthus, okro, cauliflower, spinach; (e) Fruits e.g. citrus, banana, pineapple; (f) Beverages e.g. cocoa, tea, coffee;

(g) Spices e.g. pepper, ginger; (h) Oils e.g. groundnut, shea butter, sunflower, oil palm; (i) Fibres e.g. cotton, jute, sisal hemp; (j) Latex e.g. rubber; (k) Others – sugar cane, etc.
3. Pasture and forage crops (a) Meaning of pasture and forage crops. (b) Uses of forage crops. (c) Types of pasture. (d) Common grasses and legumes used for grazing livestock. (e) Factors affecting the distribution and productivity of pasture. (f) Establishment of pasture. (g) Management practices of pasture.
4. Crop improvement (a) Aims of crop improvement. (b) Methods/processes of crop improvement e.g. introduction, selection, breeding. (c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance. (d) Advantages and disadvantages of crop improvement.

E. FORESTRY

1. Forest management (a) Meaning of forest and forestry. (b) Importance of forestry. (c) Forest regulations. (d) Forest management practices. (e) Implications of deforestation.

The assessment would include the botanical names and characteristics of common grasses and legumes used for grazing livestock.

The assessment would include the meaning of crop improvement. Definition of some genetic terms: characters or traits, chromosomes, genes, Mendel’s 1st and 2nd laws would be assessed.

2. Agro-forestry practices in West Africa (a) Meaning of agro-forestry. (b) Agro-forestry practices: (i) taungya system; (ii) alley cropping

(iii) ley farming etc

Common tree species suitable for agro-forestry practices would be accessed.

F. ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

1. Meaning and importance of ornamental plants (a) Meaning of ornamental plants. (b) Importance of ornamental plants.

2. Common types of ornamental plants (a) Types of ornamental plants according to their uses: (i) bedding plants (mostly flowering plants); (ii) hedging plants; (iii) lawn grasses etc. (b) Examples of ornamental plants.

3. Settings and location for planting ornamental plants.

4. Methods of cultivating ornamental plants: (i) by seed; (ii) vegetative propagation.

5. Maintenance of ornamental plants.

G. CROP PROTECTION

1. Diseases of crops (a) Meaning of disease (b) General effects of diseases on crop production. (c) Disease: causal organism, economic importance, mode of transmission, symptoms, prevention, and control.

The assessment would cover the identification of various types of ornamental plants.

The common and botanical names would be assessed.

The importance of each method and examples of ornamental plants propagated through such methods would be assessed.

Reasons for carrying out maintenance operations: watering, mulching, pruning, etc would be assessed

measures of the diseases of the following crops: (i) cereals – smut, rice blast, leaf rust, etc; (ii) legumes – Cercospora leaf spot, rosette, etc; (iii) beverages – cocoa black pod, swollen

shoot, coffee leaf rust, etc; (iv) tubers – cassava mosaic, bacterial leaf blight, etc; (v) fruits- citrus gummosis, dieback, etc (vi) fibre – black arm/bacterial blight of cotton, etc; (vii) vegetables – root knot of tomato or okro, damping off, onion twister etc; (viii) stored produce – mould, etc. 2. Pests of crops (a) Meaning of pests. (b) Classification of pests: (i) insect pests; (ii) non-insect pests.

(c) Classification of insect-pests based on mouth parts with examples: (i) biting and chewing; (ii) piercing and sucking; (iii) boring. (d) Important insect-pests of major crops; field and storage pests, life cycle, economic importance, nature of the damage, preventive and control measures of the following major insect pests of crops: (i) cereals – stem borer, armyworm, earworm etc

The assessment would include at least two fungal, two viral, two bacterial, and one nematode disease of the crops chosen from the list.

(ii) legumes – pod borer, aphids, sucking bugs, and leaf beetle; (iii) beverages – cocoa myrids (capsids); (iv) tubers – yam beetle, cassava mealybugs, green spider mites, variegated grasshopper;

(v) fiber – cotton stainer, bollworms; (vi) fruits and vegetables – thrips, grasshopper, leaf roller, leaf beetle, scale insect; (vii) stored produce – grain weevils, bean beetle.

(e) Non-insect pests e.g. birds, rodents, etc.

(f) Side effects of preventive and control methods: (i) chemical – pollution, poisoning; (ii) biological – disruption of the ecosystem, etc; (iii) cultural – harmful effects of burning, etc. (g) General effects/economic importance of pests.

3. Weeds (a) Meaning of weeds. (b) Types of weeds.

(c) Effects of weeds on crops and economy. (d) Characteristic features of weeds. (e) Methods of controlling weeds: cultural, biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical methods.

The nature of the damage, economic importance, and preventive and control measures of each of the non-insect pests would be assessed

Common and botanical names would be assessed.

H. ANIMAL PRODUCTION

1. Types and classification of farm animals (a) Types of farm animals: cattle, sheep, goat, poultry, pig, rabbit, fish, etc. (b) Classification of farm animals according to (i) habitat – terrestrial and aquatic. (ii) uses – food, protection, pets, etc.

2. Anatomy and physiology of farm animals

(a) Parts of farm animals.

(b) Organs of farm animals e.g. heart, liver, lungs. (c) Systems of farm animals e.g. digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system.

3. Animal reproduction (a) Meaning of reproduction. (b) Roles of hormones in the reproduction of farm animals. (c) Reproductive systems of farm animals. (d) Processes of reproduction in farm animals. (e) Egg formation in poultry.

4. Environmental physiology (a) Meaning of environmental physiology. (b) Effects of changes in climatic factors such as (i) temperature; (ii) relative humidity; and (iii) light on growth, reproduction, milk production, egg production, etc.

Drawing and labeling of parts of farm animals would be assessed. Identification of important organs and their functions would be assessed.

The assessment would include the digestive system of poultry and the differences between the monogastric and ruminant digestive systems.

The assessment would include the oestrus cycle, heat period, mating, gestation period, parturition, lactation, colostrum, mammary glands, signs of heat, ovulation, etc.

5. Livestock management (a) Meaning of livestock management. (b) Requirements for livestock management: housing; feeding; hygiene and finishing of at least one ruminant and one non-ruminant from birth to market weight. (c) Importance of management practices.

6. Animal nutrition (a) Meaning of animal nutrition. (b) Classification of feeds. (c) Sources and functions of feed nutrients. (d) Types of ration/diet and their uses; components of a balanced diet, production and maintenance rations.

(e) Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals.

7. Rangeland and pasture management (a) Meaning and importance of rangeland/pasture to livestock and the characteristics of range land. (b) Common grasses and legumes in rangeland. (c) Factors affecting the level of production of herbage; rainfall, grass/legume composition, grazing, etc. (d) Methods of rangeland and pasture improvement: controlled stocking, rotational grazing, use of fertilizers, the introduction of legumes, reseeding, weed control, burning, pest and disease control

The assessment would include extensive, intensive, and semi-intensive systems of management and record-keeping in livestock management. The biochemical details of the nutrients are not required.

The assessment would include the types of diets for the various classes of animals, their characteristics, and supplementary feeding. The assessment would include malnutrition-related conditions such as ketosis, rickets

8. Animal improvement (a) Meaning of animal improvement. (b) Aims of animal improvement. (c) Methods of animal improvement: (i) introduction; (ii) selection; (iii) breeding. (d) Artificial insemination. (i) meaning of artificial insemination. (ii) methods of collecting semen. (iii) advantages and disadvantages of artificial insemination.

9. Animal health management (a) Meaning of disease. (b) Causal organisms: viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. (c) Factors that could predispose animals to diseases: health status of animals, nutrition, management etc. (d) Reaction of animals to diseases: susceptibility and resistance to diseases. (e) Causal organisms, symptoms, mode of transmission, effects, prevention and control of the following selected livestock diseases: (i) viral-foot and mouth, rinderpest, newcastle;

(ii) bacterial – anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis; (iii) fungal – aspergillosis, ringworm, scabies; (iv) protozoa – trypanosomiasis, coccidiosis.

The assessment would include differences and similarities between breeds (local, exotic, and cross/hybrid) and the performance of animals.

The economic importance of the diseases would be assessed.

(f) Parasites. (i) meaning of parasite. (ii) types of parasites. (iii) mode of transmission, life cycle, economic importance, and control of the following selected livestock parasites: endoparasites – tapeworm, liver fluke, and roundworm; ectoparasites – ticks, lice.
(g) General methods of prevention and control of diseases and parasites: quarantine, inoculation/immunization, hygiene, breeding for resistance, etc. 10. Aquaculture (a) Meaning of aquaculture. (b) Different types of aquaculture: (i) fish farming; (ii) shrimp farming; (iii) crab farming. (c) Meaning and importance of fish farming. (d) Conditions necessary for siting a fish pond. (e) Establishment and maintenance of fish ponds.

(f) Fishery regulations – meaning and regulations. (g) Fishing methods and tools.

The assessment would include aeration, stocking, feeding, harvesting, processing, and preservation of fish.

11. Apiculture or bee keeping (a) Meaning of apiculture or beekeeping. (b) Types of bees: (i) indigenous bees; (ii) exotic bees. (c) Importance of beekeeping. (d) Methods of beekeeping: (i) traditional method; (ii) modern bee keeping. (e) Beekeeping equipment: bee hives, hive tools like suits, smokers, jungle boots, brushes, etc. (f) Precautionary measures in beekeeping: (i) locate apiaries far from human dwellings; (ii) put warning symbols near apiary etc.

NECO Syllabus For Agricultural Science | I. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND EXTENSION

1. Basic economic principles: (a) scarcity; (b) choice; (c) scale of preference; (d) law of diminishing returns.

2. Factors of production: (a) land; (b) capital; (c) labor – characteristics and classification; (d) management or entrepreneur.

3. Principles of demand (a) Definition of demand. (b) Law of demand. (c) Factors affecting demand for agricultural produce.

(d) Movements along the demand curve. (e) Shifts in the demand curve. 4. Principles of supply (a) Definition of supply. (b) Law of supply. (c) Movements along the supply curve. (d) Shifts in the supply curve. (e) Factors affecting the supply of agricultural produce.
5. Implications of demand and supply for agricultural production (a) Price support. (b) Price control. (c) Subsidy program and its effects on agricultural production.
6. Functions of a farm manager (a) Meaning of a farm manager.

(b) Functions of a farm manager.
7. Problems faced by farm managers
8. Agricultural finance (a) Meaning of agricultural finance. (b) Importance of agricultural finance. (c) Sources of farm finance. (d) Classes of farm credit: (i) classification based on length of time: – short-term credit; – medium-term credit; – long-term credit. (ii) classification based on source of credit: – institutional credit; – non-institutional credit. (iii) classification based on liquidity: – loan in-cash; – loan in-kind.

The assessment would include the meaning of farm management

The assessment would include the meaning of agri-business.

(d) Farm accounts: (i) expenditure/ purchases account; (ii) income/sales account; (iii) profit and loss account; (iv) balance sheet.

10. Marketing of agricultural produce (a) Meaning and importance of marketing of agricultural produce. (b) Marketing agents and their functions. (c) Marketing functions: (i) assembling; (ii) transportation; (iii) processing etc. (d) Marketing of export crops. (e) Export crops in West Africa. (f) Guidelines for exporting crops in West Africa. (g) Corporate bodies, cooperative societies and individuals engaged in exporting agricultural produce e.g ANCE – Association of Nigerian Cooperative Exporters. (h) Importance of exporting agricultural produce. (i) Problems of marketing agricultural produce.

11. Agricultural insurance (a) Meaning of agricultural insurance. (b) Importance of agricultural insurance. (c) Types of insurance policies for agricultural production: (i) specific enterprise insurance e.g. crop insurance, livestock insurance;

(ii) farm vehicle insurance; (iii) fire disaster insurance or machines and buildings insurance; (iv) life assurance (farmers, farm workers, and farmers’ households). (d) Insurance premium (e) Problems of agricultural insurance: – uncertainties of weather; – losses due to natural disasters etc.

12. Agricultural extension (a) Meaning and importance of agricultural extension (b) Agricultural extension methods: (i) individual contact methods; (ii) group contact methods etc. (c) Agricultural extension programs in West Africa e.g ADP, NDE, Agro-service centers, state ministries of agriculture and natural resources (d) Problems of agricultural extension in West Africa. e.g. illiteracy among farmers, inadequate transport facilities, etc

The assessment would include the meaning of agri-business

The assessment would include terms such as salvage value, appreciation, farm budget, depreciation, inventory, their importance, and their uses in calculating profit and loss of farm items like crops, livestock, farm machinery, and tools in the farm.

The advantages and disadvantages of the marketing agents would be assessed

The qualities of a good extension worker would be assessed

PRACTICAL AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

A. AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGY

1. Soil

2. Soil profile

3. Rocks

4. Laboratory work on the physical properties of soil. (a) Mechanical analysis by sedimentation and also by use of hydrometer method or sieves (b) Determination of bulk density and total pore space. (c) Determination of moisture content of a moist soil sample. (d) Determination of maximum water holding capacity. (e) Determination of wilting point. (f) Determination of capillary action. 5. Laboratory work on chemical properties of soil. (a) Determination of soil acidity using pH meter and/or any other gadget or simple equipment. (b) Common types of chemical fertilizers.

Soil samples are to be examined for texture by manual feeling of wet and dry soil. Examination of fertile and infertile soils and note distinguishing features of soils – colour, texture and structure, presence of organic matter and living things.

Simple description and identification of soil profile would be assessed.

Identification of common rock types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic would be assessed.

Identification, methods, and rates of application of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and compound fertilizers would be assessed

d) Organic manure: (i) green manure; (ii) farm yard; (iii) compost.

6. Irrigation and drainage

 B. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING/MECHANIZATION

1. Farm tools and equipment

2. Tractor and animal-drawn implement

3. Harvesting, processing, and storage equipment.

4. Farm tractor

5. Uses and maintenance of horticultural tools and implements.

6. Livestock and fishing equipment

Identification, method of preparation, and application of compost would be assessed.

Identification and uses of irrigation and drainage equipment e.g. watering can, sprinkler, pump, and pipes would be assessed. The assessment would include identification, description, uses, and maintenance of various garden tools and equipment e.g. hoe, cutlass, garden trowel, hand fork, shovel, spade, rake, sickle, secateurs, shears, long handle hoe, pruner, budding knife, emasculator.

The assessment would include identification, description, uses, and maintenance of tractor and animal-drawn implements e.g. ploughs, harrows, ridgers, planters, and cultivators; identification of the major parts of the implements and their functions.

The assessment would include identification, description, and uses of harvesting, processing, and storage equipment e.g. dehuskers, shellers, winnowers, dryers, processors, graters, refrigerators, cutlasses, scythe, and groundnut lifters. Identification of the major components of the farm tractor, servicing, and maintenance would be assessed.

Identification uses and maintenance of the following horticultural tools: shears, dibbers, pruning knives, secateurs, budding knife, measuring tapes, hand forks, hand trowels, hoes, and forks would be assessed.

Identification, description, uses, and care of livestock and fishing

equipment e.g. waterers, feeders, milking machines, nets, hook and line, branding machine, egg candler would be assessed.

7. Farm surveying equipment

NECO Syllabus For Agricultural Science | C. CROP PRODUCTION

1. Seeds, seedlings, fruits, and storage organs of crops.

2. Main pests and diseases of crops

3. Planting dates, seed rates, plant population, and seed quality tests of the more common local crop plants.

4. Preparation of seedbeds, fertilizer application, mulching, use of pesticides, watering, vegetative propagation, germination tests, etc.

5. Forest products and by-products.

6. Methods of propagation of horticultural plants.

7. Common weeds

Assessment will include identification, uses, and care of simple surveying equipment e.g. measuring tape, pins or arrows, ranging poles, plum bob, offset staff, compass, gunter’s chains, pegs, and theodolite.

Identification of seeds, seedlings, fruits, storage organs, and essential parts of the common crop plants, pasture grasses, and legumes would be assessed.

The assessment would include identification and control of the main field and storage pests e.g. cotton stainer, yam beetles, weevils, etc and the damage they cause to crops; identification of main diseases of crops, their causal agents and characteristic symptoms, prevention and control

The assessment would include the following propagation methods – direct sowing, transplanting, layering, grafting, and budding. External features, mode of dispersal, and methods of controlling weeds on the farm would be assessed.

1. Common breeds of animals and types of animals available in the locality.

Identification of breeds, methods of restraints, handling, and grooming of farm animals would be assessed

2. Major internal organs of farm animals, e.g. organs of the digestive system, reproductive and excretory systems.
3. Animal by-products

4. Animal feeds and feedstuffs and their local sources.

5. Main pests and parasites of farm animals.

6. Diseases of farm animals.

7. Routine management practices in farm animals, e.g. selection of livestock and poultry for breeding, culling, ear-notching, tattooing, horn or skin branding, debeaking, dehorning, castration.

8. Fish harvesting and preservation.

The assessment would cover the identification and functions of the major internal organs. Identification of animal by-products e.g. hides and skin, fur, feather, horns would be assessed. The assessment would cover the identification and uses of feeds and feedstuffs (e.g. fish meal, groundnut cake, rice bran); types of diets/ration. The assessment would cover the identification of common ectoparasites(e.g. ticks, lice) and endoparasites(e.g tapeworms, liver flukes, roundworms); the damage caused on their hosts and their control; and their life cycles.

Methods of prevention and control of diseases of farm animals, e.g. drugging, drenching, dipping, spraying, and simple methods of farm sanitation would be assessed. The assessment would cover the identification of equipment/tools used for routine management practices.

Methods of harvesting, processing, and preservation of fish would be assessed.

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