WAEC Syllabus for Government 2023

Are you searching for the best site you can study or download WAEC Syllabus for Government? Search no more. In this article, we will briefly examine the “WAEC Syllabus For Government 2023/2024.

Since many WAEC exam candidates have been visiting our website for WAEC guides and asking us other questions about the WAEC Government syllabus to aid in their preparation, it has become imperative that we do this.

The equivalent of going to the farm without your agricultural tools is exam preparation without the Government syllabus. You won’t get anything done in the end. It is advisable you use the syllabus as a starting point for your exam preparations.

A syllabus or specification is a written statement outlining the requirements and expectations for a particular course. It often has a smaller scope than a curriculum. A syllabus may be created by the examination board or by the tutor or teacher who oversees or instructs the course.

Some of the importance of making use of a syllabus are;

It makes an impression on the reader (students); The syllabus is one of the first pieces of information students will receive about the course, so you have the chance to make a strong first impression on them by designing it well.

Another important reason for employing the use of a syllabus as a student who intends to partake in the upcoming WAEC is that it sets a tone for what potential candidates’ interaction will look like.

You cannot prepare for or take the WAEC exam without the Waec Syllabus. It serves as a roadmap for the material you’ll be studying.

Without a guide or some other form of guidance, a blind person cannot reach their objective. If you don’t study in line with your WAEC curriculum, you are essentially preparing to fail the test.

To succeed in your forthcoming examination, you need to have in your grasp the complete WAEC syllabus for all subjects so that your preparation can have direction.

WAEC Government Syllabus

Government is a social science-related course, and the acquisition of the degree makes one employable in administrative positions in any field, political appointments, ambassadorship, education sector, etc.

Political science, generally known as the study of government, is crucial because it helps students comprehend both their place as citizens and how our government functions.

Hence, every student who aspires to write Government in the West African examination must endeavor to make use of the WAEC Government syllabus as a guide to their study.

Aims and Objectives

This curriculum intends to evaluate candidates’ capacity to

1. Define government concepts and demonstrate comprehension of their tenets, structures, and procedures.

2. Recognize their civic responsibilities as informed participants and the contributions they make to the advancement of the nation.

3. Evaluate the successes, failures, and problems of governments in West Africa.

4. Analyze the constitutional developments and processes of colonial and post–independent government.

5. Appreciate the role of their country as a member of the international community.

Scheme of the Examinations

There will be two papers – Paper 1 and Paper 2, both of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be composite and will be taken in one sitting.

PAPER 1: 50 multiple-choice, objective questions from the whole curriculum will make up this test. For a total of 40 points, candidates will have one hour to respond to all the questions.

PAPER 2: This will be a 2-hour essay-type test consisting of two sections, Sections A and B as follows:

Section A: Elements of Government

Shall contain five questions out of which candidates shall be required to attempt any two.

Section B: Political and Constitutional Developments in West Africa and International Relations

Shall contain sets of five questions each; one set for one member country.  Each candidate is to answer two questions chosen from the set on the country in which he/she is taking the examination.

The paper shall carry 60 marks.

Section A: Elements of Government

Meaning and Scope of the Subject Matter – Government

1. Government as an institution of the state

2. Definition of state, features, structure, and functions.

3. Government as a process or art or governing.

4. Government as an academic field of study – reasons for studying government.

Basic Concepts and Principles of Government

Basic concepts – State, *Society, *Nation, Power, Authority, Legitimacy, Sovereignty, Democracy, Political Culture and Socialization, Communalism, Feudalism, oligarchy, *Liberalism, Socialism, Communism, Capitalism, Fascism, Aristocracy, Totalitarianism.

Meaning and features.

Basic principles – Rule of Law, Fundamental Human Rights, Separation of  Powers/Checks and Balances, Constitutionalism, Political participation, Representative Government, Centralization, and Decentralization – (Delegated Legislation, Devolution, and Decentralization).


1. Definition and Sources

2. Functions

3. Types and Features, (Written and Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible).

Organs of Government

The Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary – Judicial Independence. (Types, Structure, Composition/membership; Functions; Powers, and Limitations).

State Structure and Characteristics of Government

1. Types – Unitary, Federal, Confederal, Presidential or Non-parliamentary, Parliamentary or Cabinet, Monarchical, and Republican.

2. Meaning, types, features, merits, and demerits.


Meaning, mode of acquisition, rights, duties, and obligations of individuals in the state. Means of safeguarding rights of citizens.

Political Parties and Party Systems

1. Political Parties – definition, organization/structure, and functions.

2. Party Systems – definition, types, merits, and demerits.

Pressure Groups, Public Opinion and Mass Media

1. Pressure Groups – definition, types,  mode of operation, and functions;

2.  Public opinion – definition, formation, Measurement, and importance;

3. Mass Media – definition, roles, and impact.

The Electoral Systems, Processes, and Electoral Management Body

1. Electoral Systems and Processes

    • Election- Meaning and purpose of elections.
    • Franchise – meaning, and limitations.
    • Types, advantages, and Disadvantages of Electoral Systems.

2. Electoral Management Body – definition, function, problems/constraints.

Public/Civil Service Administration

1. Public/Civil Service – Meaning, Structure, Characteristics, and Functions.

2. Public/Civil Service Commission –meaning and Functions.

3. Public Corporations – definition, purposes, functions, control, challenges, need for commercialization, and privatization.

4. Local Governments – Meaning, structure, Purposes, Functions, Sources of revenue, control, and problems.

Section B: Political and Constitutional Developments in West Africa and International Relations


Pre-colonial Political System of Candidates Respective Countries

The Structural Organization of the following:

1. Nigeria          –   Hausa/Fulani, the Yoruba, and the Igbo.

2. Ghana            –   The Akan and the Talensi.

3. Sierra Leone   –   The Mende and Temme.

4. The Gambia   –   The Wolof, Mandingo and Jola.

5. Liberia            –   The Vai and the Kru.

Colonial Administration

1. The Policy and Structure of the British Colonial Administration – Crown Colony, Protectorate, and Indirect Rule.

2. The Policy of French Colonial Administration – Assimilation and Association (Loi Cadre).

3. Impact, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Colonial Rule.

Nationalism in Candidate’s Respective Countries

1. Nationalism: Meaning, factors, and effects.

2. Key Nationalist leaders/movements and their contributions.

Constitutional Development in Candidates’ Respective Countries

1.  Pre-Independence Constitutions –

Nigeria (features)           –   Clifford 1922

Richards 1946

Macpherson 1951

Littleton 1954

Ghana (features, merits, and demerits)              –   Clifford 1916

Guggisberg 1925

Burns 1946

Arden Clarke 1951

Nkrumah  1954

Sierra Leone (features, merits, and demerits)    –   Slatter 1924

Stevenson 1947

Beresford Stooke 1951                       The 1956 and 1958


(d)   The Gambia (features, merits, and demerits)      – 1947, 1951,

1954, 1960, 1962 and 1963


2. Post-Independence Constitutions – Features

(a) Nigeria – Independence Constitution, 1960

Republican Constitution 1963

The 1979 and 1989 Constitutions

1999 Constitution – Origin, features, strengths, and Weaknesses.

(b) Ghana       –     Independence Constitution, 1957

Republican Constitution 1960

2nd Republican Constitution 1969

3rd Republican Constitution 1979

4th Republican Constitutions 1992.

(c) Sierra Leone – Independence Constitution 1961

Republican Constitution 1971

The 1978 and 1991 Constitutions,

(d)   The Gambia –   Independence Constitution  1965

Republican Constitution 1970.

2nd Republican Constitution 1997

(e)     Liberia        –     Independence/Republican Constitution 1947

2nd Republican Constitution 1985

Development of Major Political Parties in the Candidate’s Respective Countries

1. Nigeria

2. Sierra Leone

3. The Gambia

4. Liberia

The formation, Objectives, Sources of Finance, Achievements, and Failures

Military Rule in the Candidates’ Respective Countries

1.  Nigeria

2. Ghana;

3. Sierra Leone

4. The Gambia

5. Liberia

Causes, effects, and various military regimes.

Federal/Unitary Systems of Government in West Africa

1. Nigeria

2. Sierra Leone

3. The Gambia

4. Liberia

Origin, Factors, Structure, Features, and Problems

Foreign Policies of the Candidates’ Respective Countries

1. Nigeria

2. Ghana

3. Sierra Leone

4. The Gambia

5. Liberia

Definitions, Factors, objectives, advantages, and disadvantages.

International Organizations

1. The United Nations Organizations (UNO),

2. The Commonwealth of Nations,

3. African Union (AU) – NEPAD,

4. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

5. Origin aims/objectives, achievements, and problems.

Author Title
ADU BOAHEN, A Ghana Evolution and Change in the 19th and 20th Centuries
HODGKIN T. African Political Parties
ADDAE P. G. Senior Secondary School Government Bks. 1&2
ECHIEFU S. M Modern Government
DARE AND OYEWOLE A Textbook of Government for Senior Secondary School
OYEDIRAN AND CO. Government for Senior Secondary School.
FRANCIS ADIGWE Essentials of Government
PRAH ISAAC Government for Senior Secondary School


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